- The way we're wired...
- Men converse competitively, whereas women converse collaboratively.
- Women have lower self-esteem than men.
- The way our institutions are structured...
- With fewer women than men in leadership positions, the power structure favors men over women.
- Cultural perceptions...
- People do not interrupt leaders, and men are perceived to be better leaders than women.
- Women are less supportive of women speakers if they are in a mostly-male audience.
- Men who break conversational rules are "assertive," while women are "bitchy."
Hancock, Adrienne B. and Rubin, Benjamin A., Department of Speech and Hearing Services, The George Washington University, Influence of Communication Partner's Gender on Language, Journal of Language and Social Psychology, , 2014 (accessed via the Texas A&M Medical Sciences Library): https://advance.tamu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Journal-of-Language-and-Social-Psychology-2014-Hancock-0261927X14533197.pdf
Krupnick, Catherine G., Men and Women in the Classroom, Derek Bok Center for Teaching and Learning, Harvard University, 1985: http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/html/icb.topic58474/krupnick.html
Robb, Alice, Why Women Get Interrupted More, -- Even By Other Women, New Republic, May 14, 2014: https://newrepublic.com/article/117757/gender-language-differences-women-get-interrupted-more
Cameron, Debbie, Why Women Talk Less, Debuk.Wordpress.com, May 23, 2015: https://debuk.wordpress.com/2015/05/23/why-women-talk-less/